Native to the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, muggu (also known as muggulu) is a form of decorative floor art or rangoli created by women on the thresholds of homes. The pattern is primarily white and is made with muggupudi, a mixture of calcium and/or chalk powder.
Traditionally, for the creation of the muggu, the women first spread cowdung on the threshold, creating a moist surface for the muggupudi to stick to. This is traditionally performed as a ritual at the break of dawn and is drawn with the maker facing eastwards. During the harvest festival of Sankranti, the white muggupudi is created with rice flour, as an offering to ants, sparrows and other creatures that tend to feed on it. Additionally, during the month of Sankranti and the month preceding it, muggu is prepared with white, denoting purity and peace; red, representing devotion and love; and yellow, standing for prosperity. The centre of the muggu during this time is also decorated with cow dung, known as gobbemmalu, and flowers.
The motifs present in muggu, similar to the kolam, are made up of equidistant dots which may be connected with one single line or drawn around to form decorative geometric patterns, known as chukkala muggulu (dot designs). When these dots are joined by curved lines to create designs it is known as tippudu muggulu (curved designs). Freehand designs that are made without using dots are known as chukkalu leni muggulu (designs without dots). Other popular motifs drawn during Sankranti are the ratham muggulu or chariot muggulu that can be large enough to occupy the entire front yard on the first and second Sankranti days.
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